Genocide and Extortion 

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Jane Sam provided an eyewitness account of the attack on Indian Island. Courtesy of the Humboldt Times
Humboldt Indian Massacres of 1860.
James D. Henry Brown, named by an Indian as a leader of the Indian Island Massacre. Courtesy of the Humboldt Historian
Austin Wiley preached “removal or extermination” of the Indians from the pulpit of the Humboldt Times and later became Superintendent for Indian Affairs in California. from History of Humboldt County California, Courtesy of HSU Library
Governor John Downey refused to authorize or pay the Hydesville Volunteers, who had expected the same treatment as the Trinity Rangers. courtesy of the Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
This honorable discharge from the Trinity Rangers would be worth about $42,000 in today’s money. courtesy of the Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
Polly Steve not only made beautiful baskets but could also be trusted with the Ten Eyck Mine’s gold. courtesy of the Grace Nicholson Collection, Huntington Library
Annie Sam survived the massacre along with her sister, Jane Sam, and other members of her family. courtesy of the Humboldt Times
Jerry James was found as an infant on Indian Island in the arms of his dead mother. courtesy of the C. Hart Merriam Collection of Native American Photographs, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
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